Age spots and dark spots are pigmented spots formed by clusters of concentrated melanin, most often seen in people with fair skin. Predominantly found on the face and in forms of freckles that may appear on any skin exposed to the sun, including arms or shoulders. There are two types of freckles: ephelides (tan, slightly reddish, or light brown flat spots, fade with reduced sun exposure) and lentigines (darker and sunburn freckles, also known as liver spots or dark spots, do not fade in the winter).
Although age spots are more common with older generation, However, they do not pose any health threat, though they occasionally have been known to obscure the detection of skin cancer. However, dark spots removed for aesthetic purposes where the complexion appears uneven and aged. Sunlight is the most common culprit for this problem; therefore, avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight is one of the most important preventive measures. Use of sunscreens is yet another important preventive measure if you can’t avoid going out into the sun. Another reason for hyperpigmention specially occurs during hormonal imbalance, where the one’s entire system including skin is compromised and requires immediate consult.
Promising treatments to eliminate hyper pigmentation, age spots & Dark spots are lightening agents such as retinoids, kojic acid, Alpha-Arbutin microdermabrasion, chemical peels, Vitamin B and C, high performance peptides, added with specific pigment corrective plant extracts cryotherapy and laser therapy. Maintenance of proper hydration and use of anti-oxidants helps reduce the damage caused by exposure to sun and oxidation due to free radicals. These agents act by either inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme activity or transfer of melanosomes to cells in the epidermal layer.